Genome-editing techniques are promising tools in plant breeding. To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the current and future applications of genome editing in crops, EU-SAGE developed an interactive, publicly accessible online database of genome-edited crops.

The aim of the database is to inform interested stakeholder communities in a transparent manner about the latest evidence about genome editing applications in crops. Different elements including the plant species, traits, techniques, and applications can be filtered in this database.

Regarding the methodology, a literature search in the bibliographic databases and web pages of governmental agencies was conducted using predefined queries in English. Identifying research articles in other languages was not possible due to language barriers. Patents were not screened.

Peer-reviewed articles were screened for relevance and were included in the database based on pre-defined criteria. The main criterium is that the research article should describe a research study of any crop developed for market-oriented agricultural production as a result of a genome editing.

This database will be regularly updated. Please contact us via the following webpage (https://www.eu-sage.eu/contact) in case you would like to inform us about a new scientific study of crops developed for market-oriented agricultural production as a result of genome editing.

This work has been supported by Task Force Planet Re-Imagine Europa (https://reimagine-europa.eu/area/planet)

Displaying 134 results

Traits related to abiotic stress tolerance

Drought tolerance.
( Kim D et al,. 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Drought and salt tolerance.
( Curtin et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota, USA
The University of Newcastle, Australia
Modulate aluminium resistance. Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the main factor inhibiting plant root development and reducing crops yield in acidic soils.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA

Traits related to improved food/feed quality

Increased levels of oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Camelina is a low-input oilseed crop. It is necessary to ameloriate fatty acid composition in oils to meet different application requirements.
( Ozseyhan et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Lower oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Most commercially produced oil seeds synthesize only a relatively small range of fatty acids, offering limited functionality.
( Aznar-Moreno et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kansas State University, USA
Decreases in palmitic acid, increased total C18 and reduced total saturated fatty acid contents. Reduced saturated fat content is connected to lowered cardiovascular disease rate.
( Gupta et al., 2012 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
High-quality sugar production by rice (98% sucrose content). Carbohydrates are an essential energy-source. Sugarcane and sugar beet were the only two crop plants used to produce sugar.
( Honma et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China
Faculty of Engineering
Kitami Institute of Technology
NagoyaUniversity
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
Carnegie Institution for Science, USA
Promoted phenolic acid biosynthesis. Salvia is tradional Chinese medicine with great medical value to treat cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Phenolic acids make up a big part of the bioactive compounds.
( Shi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
East China University of Science and Technology
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
High oleic, low linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid phenotype. High concentration of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids causes oxidative instability.
( Do et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri, USA
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
Reduced raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) levels in seeds. Human and other monogastric animals cannot digest major soluble carbohydrates, RFOs.
( Le et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
University of Missouri, USA
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Germany
Low polyunsaturated fats content. Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat.
( Haun et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant sciences Inc., USA
High oleic and low linolenic oil to improve nutritional characteristics, increase shelf-life and frying stability.
( Demorest et al., 2016 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant science Inc.
Calyxt, USA
Improvement of starch quality.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Science

Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co.
LTD, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Reduced gluten content. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins.
( Sánchez-León,et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IASCSIC), Spain
University of Minnesota, USA
Increased grain number per spikelet.
( Zhang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri
South Dakota State University
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
University of Bristol, UK
High levels of beta-carotene accumulation.
( Lu et al., 2006 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cornell University
University of Minnesota, USA
Glossy phenotype. Reduced epicuticular wax in leaves.
( Char et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Alteration of the inositol phosphate profile in developing seeds.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Reduced phytate production + herbicide tolerance. Generation of a dual phenotype through targeted manipulation of a single locus.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN3
ZFN
Dow AgroScience, USA
High-oleic acid content. Oleic acid has increased oxidative stability compared to linolenic and linoleic acid, improving fuel stability and the oil's suitability for high-temperature food applications, for example frying.
( Jarvis et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Illinois State University
University of North Texas
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Improve glutinosity in elite varieties. Decreased amylose content without affecting other desirable agronomic traits.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University
University of Queensland, USA
Increased amylose content. Cereals high in amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential health benefits and reduce risks of diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain colon and rectum cancers.
( Sun et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
University of Liege, Belgium
Modified composition: accumulation of fivefold more starch than WT leaves, and more sucrose as well. Architectural changes
(Bezrutczyk et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Science, USA
Carotenoid-enriched. Carotenoids, the source of pro vitamin A, are an essential component of dietary antioxidants.
( Dong et al., 2020 )
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Innovative Genomics Institute
The Joint Bioenergy Institute, USA
High fruit malate accumulation. Malate is a primary organic acid in tomato and a crucial compound that contributes to fruit flavor and palatability.
( Ye et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Cornell University, USA
Increased sucrose content.
( Ren et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
Capital Normal University
China Agricultural University, China
Cornell University
Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, USA
Attenuated toxic cyanogen production. Cassava produces toxic cyanogenic compounds and requires food processing for safe consumption.
( Gomez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
Chan-Zuckerberg BioHub, USA
Increased digestibility and protein quality. Reduced kafirin levels. Kafirins are the major storage proteins in sorghum grains and form protein bodies with poor digestibility. Kafirins are devoid of the essential amino acid lysine, they also impart poor protein quality to the kernel.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of Missouri, USA
Improved starch quality. Reduced amylopectin and increased amylose percentage.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co. LTD
Chinese Academy of Science, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Altered lignin composition: decreased syringyl monolignol / guaiacylmonolignol (S/G) ratio. The monolignol ratio has been proposed to affect biomass recalcitrance and the resistance to plant disease.
(Cao et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
SouthwestUniversity, China
University of Wisconsin, USA
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Ultra-low nicotine level
( Burner et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University, USA
Amylose-free starch in tubers.
( Toinga-Villafuerte et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M University, USA
Increased RS. Cereals high in RS may be beneficial to improve human health and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.
( Biswas et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M Univ.
Avance Biosciences Inc., USA
Enhancing the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, essential components of a healthy, balanced diet.
( Han et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rothamsted Research, UK
Montana State University, USA
Enhanced oil composition. Increased oleic acid content and significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to <4%) and linolenic acid (a decrease from ~35% to <10%).
( Jiang et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of California, USA

Traits related to increased plant yield and growth

Increased fruit size. Highly branched inflorescence and formation of multiple flowers.
( Rodri­guez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype. High varieties are challenged by weak lodging and damages caused by storms, dwarf varieties are suitable for mechanized plant maintenance and fruit harvesting.
( Shao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hunan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
University of Florida, USA
Improve plant architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch number are directly correlated with yield.
( Zheng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Wilkes University, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype and compact architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch angle are the major architectural factors determining yield.
( Fan et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China
Wilkes University, USA
High temperature germination. Large increases in the maximum temperature for seed germination to allow for the cultivation of the crop in production areas with higher temperature.
( Bertier et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Increased grain yield under field drought stress conditions and no yield loss under well-watered conditions.
( Shi et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Early flowering under long day conditions of higher latitudes to spread production of maize over a broad range of latitudes rapidly.
( Huang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Wisconsin, USA
Increased yield under different environmental conditions: well-watered, drought, normal nitrogen and low nitrogen field conditions and at multiple geographical locations.
(Wang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group Co.
Ltd
Corteva Agriscience
Johnston, USA
Early flowering and maturity. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop yield and cultivation.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group, Co., China
Corteva™ Agriscience, USA
Improved high-density yield and drought/osmotic stress tolerance.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Texas Tech University, USA
Bushy phenotype and increased tiller production.
( Liu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Improve biomass yield and salinity tolerance.
( Guan et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Shandong institute of agricultural sustainable development
Beijing Sure Academy of Biosciences, China
Oklahoma State University, USA
Haploid induction to accelerate breeding in crop plants.
( Kelliher et al., 2017 )
SDN1
TALENs
Syngenta Seeds, USA
Enhancing grain-yield-related traits by increases in meristem size
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Improved field performance: higher yield, producing on average 5.5 bushels per acre more. Waxy corn.
(Gao et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Corteva Agriscience, USA
Improved nitrogen use efficiency.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Bigger seedlings.
( Lor et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Early flowering. Day-light sensitivity limited the geographical range of cultivation.
( Soyk et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Université Paris-Scalay, France
Faster seedling growth.
( Zhou et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Maryland, USA
Plant development. Phenotypes consistent with increased GA response: tall and slender with light green vegetation.
(Lor et al., 2014)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Increase in floral organ number or fruit size, conferring enhanced tomato fruit yield.
( Rodriguez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Combine agronomically desirable traits with useful traits present in wild lines. Threefold increase in fruit size and a tenfold increase in fruit number. Fruit lycopene accumulation is improved by 500% compared with the widely cultivated S. lycopersicum.
( Zsögön et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Universidade de São Paulo Paulo, Brazil
University of Minnesota, USA
Universität Münster, Germany
Customize tomato cultivars for urban agriculture: increased compactness and decreased growth cycle of tomato plants.
(Kwon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cornell University
University of Florida, USA
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Increased plant yield due to architectural changes. Leaf inclination: maize plants with upright leaves can be planted at higher densities without shading.
(Brekke et al., 2011)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Increased bending strength. Stalk lodging, which is generally determined by stalk strength, results in considerable yield loss and has become a primary threat to maize yield under high-density planting.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Iowa State University, USA
Increased yield.
( Zhou et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Xichang University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Promoted rice growth and productivity.
( Miao et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Increased grain size and modulated shoot architecture.
( Miao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang A&
F University
Nanchang University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Dwarf phenotype. Tomatoes with compact growth habits and reduced plant height can be useful in some environments.
( Tomlinson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
University of Minnesota, USA
Dwarf phenotype.
( Lawrenson et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Murdoch University, USA
Rapid improvement of domestication traits and genes that control plant architecture, flower production and fruit size. Major productivity traits are improved in an orphan crop.
( Lemmon et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
The Boyce Thompson Institute
Cornell University, USA
Increased total kernel number or kernel weight.
( Kelliher et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research Triangle Park
University of Georgia, USA
Syngenta Crop Protection, The Netherlands
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Altering leaf inclination angle which has the potential to elevate yield in high-density plantings.
( Brant et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, USA
Kastamonu University, Turkey
Conferred lodging resistance. Tef is a staple food, and valuable cash crop in Ethiopia. Lodging is a major limitation to its production.
( Beyene et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Corteva Agriscience
Michigan State University, USA
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia

Traits related to industrial utilization

Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Svitashev et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content, improves cell wall composition for production of bio-ethanol.
(Jung et al., 2016)
SDN1
TALENs
Korea University, South Korea
University of Florida, USA
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content and improved sugar release.
(Park et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Noble Research Institute, USA
Reduced lignin content and S (syringyl lignin)/G (guaiacyl lignin) (S/G) ratio alteration to reduce cell wall recalcitrance and improve bioethanol production. Lignin is a major component of secondary cell walls and contributes to the recalcitrance problem during fermentation.
( Park et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
BioEnergy Science Center
University of Tennessee, USA
Hairy root transformation. Hairy roots play a role in multiple processes, ranging from recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering to analyses of rhizosphere physiology and biochemistry.
( Ron et al., 2014 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Emory University, USA
University of Cambridge, UK
Trait stacking. Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits.
( Ainley et al., 2013 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences LLC
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., USA
Stem wood discoloration due to lignin reduction.
( Zhou et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Georgia, USA
Complete reproductive sterility to prevent the spread of highly domesticated, exotic or genetically modified organisms into wild populations.
( Azeez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan Technological University, USA
Generate self-compatible diploid potato lines for the application of efficient breeding methods.
( Enciso-Rodriguez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan State University, USA
Induction of haploid plants and a reduced seed set for rice breeding.
( Yao et al., 2018 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
ZhongGuanCun Life Science Park, China
Syngenta India Limited
Technology Centre
Medchal Mandal, India
Syngenta Crop Protection
LLC
Research Triangle Park, USA
Asexual propagation trough seeds. Induction of apomeiosis, mitosis instead of meiosis. This proces leads to the production of genetically identical seeds, serving many applications in plant breeding.
( Khanday et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Innovative Genomics Institute
Iowa State University, USA
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Rapid generation of male sterile (MS) bread wheat. MS is an important tool in creating hybrid crop varieties that provide a yield advantage over traditional varieties by harnessing heterosis.
( Singh et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Rubber biosynthesis. To accelerate the domestication of Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TK), a plant notable for its ability to produce high molecular weight rubber in its roots and which might be an alternative source of natural rubber.
( Iaffaldano et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, USA
Bioethanol production: Improved saccharification efficiency without compromising biomass yield.
(Kannan et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Florida
Novozymes North America Inc, USA
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), South Korea
Accelerated abscission. Plant organ abscission is a process important for development and reproductive success,
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture of Ministry of Education, China
University of California at Davis
Crops Pathology and Genetic Research Unit, USA
Enhanced biological nitrogen fixation to reduce the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Enhanced biofilm formation of soil diazotrophic bacteria by modified root microbiome structure.
( Yan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Bayer Crop Science, USA

Traits related to product color/flavour

Crop modification: albino phenotype.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Pennsylvania, USA
Fruit coloration. Fruit color affects consumer preference and is one of the breeding objectives of great interests. For example, white-fruited cultivars are sold at a much higher price than red-fruited cultivars.
( Gao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Colour modification. Purple tomatoes.
( Cermak et al., 2015 )
SDN2
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
Color modification due to reduced anthocyanin accumulation.
( Klimek-Chodacka et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland
East Carolina University
University of Maryland, USA
Albino phenotype.
( Syombua et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
University of Nairobi, Kenya
University of Missouri
Iowa State University
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Colour modification. Purple tomatoes.
( Cermak et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota, USA
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
Albino phenotype.
( Brewer et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA

Traits related to storage performance

Improved cold storage and processing traits: reduced levels of acrylamide, reduced sugars.
(Clasen et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis Plant Science, USA
Improved shelf-life by targeting the genes modulating pectin degradation in ripening tomato.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of London
University of Leicester
University of Nottingham
University of Leeds, UK
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
Delayed fruit ripening.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
University of Connecticut, USA
Controlling the rate of fruit softening to extend shelf life.
( Uluisik et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nottingham
Royal Holloway University of London
Heygates Ltd
Syngenta Seeds
Sutton Bonington Campus, UK
Syngenta Crop Protection
University of California
Cornell University
Skidmore College, USA

Traits related to biotic stress tolerance

Viral resistance: increased resistance to infection with the potato virus Y (PVY) and tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. PVY is one of the most economically important potato pathogens
(Makhotenko et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Russia Moscow State University, Russia
Doka Gene Technologies Ltd, USA
Fungal resistance: Reduced pathogenicity to the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive pathogen that infects all parts of papaya plants. Increased papain sensitvity of in-vitro growth. Papaya fruits contain papain, a cysteine protease that mediates plant defense against pathogens and insects.
(Gumtow et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Viral resistance: Reduced viral load and symptoms after bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) infection.
(Baltes et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota
The Ohio State University, USA
Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Czech Republic
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), a major fungal disease, threatening one of the most economically valuable horticular crops.
(Wan et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Northwest A&
F University
University of Maryland College Park, USA
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry.
(Jia et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Shan et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
University of Minnesota, USA

Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zhou et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2012)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Viral resistance: Attenuated infection symptoms and reduced viral RNA accumulation, specific for the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
(Zhang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
University of Missouri, USA
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Phytophthora tropicalis. Severe outbreaks can destroy all cacao fruit on a farm. Each year, global cacao production is destroyed with 20-30% by pathogens.
(Fister et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Visualization of the early stages of Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) infection in vivo. CBB is caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis.
( Veley et al., 2021 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
National Root Crops Research Institute, Nigeria
Viral resistance: reduced cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) symptom severity and incidence. CBSD threatens cassava production in West Africa and is a major constraint on cassava production in East and Central Africa.
(Gomez et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry. Citrus is the most produced fruit in the world.
(Jia et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Bacterial resistance: resistance to Xanthomonas citri, a pathogen causing citrus canker. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide, causing canker symptoms. Generating disease-resistant varieties is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly measures for controlling canker.
(Jia et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
Citrus Research and Education Center, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University
Guangxi University, USA
Bacterial resistance: resistance to different pathogens including Xanthomonas spp., P. syringae and P. capsici.
(de Toledo Thomazella et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Resistance to parasitic weed: Phelipanche aegyptiaca. The obligate root parasitic plant causes great damages to important crops and represents one of the most destructive and greatest challenges for the agricultural economy.
(Bari et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Newe Ya’ar Research Center,
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Israel
University of California, USA
Fungal resistance: improved resistance to necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.
(Jeon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Stanford University, UK
L’Oreal, France
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA
Viral resistance: increased control on viral pathogen Banana streak virus (BSV). The BSV integrates in the banana host genome as endogenous BSV (eBSV). When banana plants are stressed, the eBSV produces infectious viral particles and thus the plant develops disease symptoms.
(Tripathi et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
University of California, USA
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance against hemibiotrophic pathogens M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (but increased susceptibility to Cochliobolus miyabeanus)
(Kim et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Oomycete resistance: significantly reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease (DM). DM is caused by Peronospora belbahrii, a worldwide threat to the basil industry.
(Zhang et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The State University of New Jersey, USA
Mutants were compromised in infectivity of Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive oomycete plant pathogen with a wide host range
( Pettongkhao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
University of Hawaii at Manoa
East-West Center, USA
Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University (SLCU), UK
Enhanced resistance to downy mildew pathogen.
( Hasley et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

Traits related to herbicide tolerance

Herbicide tolerance: AHAS-inhibiting
(Gocal et al., 2015)

ODM
Cibus, Canada
Cibus, USA
Herbicide tolerance: glyphosate
(Hummel et al., 2017)
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, USA
Herbicide tolerance: glyphosate
(Sauer et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cibus, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Svitashev et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Glyphosate resistance.
( Ortega et al., 2018 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
New Mexico State University, USA
Imidazolinone & sulfonylurea
( Zhu et al., 1999 )

ODM
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Svitashev et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Li et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer Agricultural Biotechnology, USA
Imidizolinone
( Butler et al., 2016 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan State University
University of Minnesota, USA
Imidizolinone
( Butler et al., 2016 )
SDN2
TALENs
Michigan State University
University of Minnesota, USA
Resistance to imidazolinone herbicides.
( Zhu et al., 2000 )

ODM
Novartis Agricultural Discovery Institute
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Resistance to either imidazolinone or sulfonylurea herbicides
( Zhu et al., 1999 )

ODM
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Bispyribac sodium
( Butt et al., 2017 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Rice University, USA